'Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information' (Martin, Carlson & Buskist, 2007).
Memory Psychology largely occupies the realms of cognitive psychology and neuroscience, though there are certainly interesting inputs from other psychological approaches, such as social, developmental and evolutionary psychology.
Cognitive research into human memory began in earnest as part of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s.
By the end of the 1960s, Atkinson and Shiffrin had proposed their highly influential Dual Process Model of Memory, which later became the Multi-Store Model of Memory.
The model proposed three separate memory stores: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory.
Baddeley and Hitch subsequently developed a more nuanced theory of how short term (or primary) memory works, called the Working Memory Model.
There have also been studies considering structural and procedural distinctions within Long Term Memory.
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