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Developmental Psychology Textbook Video

Schaffer & Emerson’s Four Stages of Attachment

Schaffer & Emerson (1964) conducted an observational study of 60 children in Glasgow, Scotland, to understand how babies form and develop attachments. They note that human infants take a significantly longer time to form a bond than newborn animals, such as ducks. Human infants’ attachments develop in four stages: 1) The Asocial Stage – usually […]

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Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Textbook

Communal Parenting (Bettelheim, 1964)

Is a two-parent family unit actually necessary for children to develop into successful adults? Western culture has traditionally encouraged the ‘nuclear family’ – a household unit that comprises of a mother, a father and their children. However, increasingly children are being brought up in a single-parent household, but non-nuclear parenting is nothing new. In 1964, […]