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Temperament: A Reliable Indicator of a Baby’s Personality?

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Developmental Psychology Textbook Video

Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

SCROLL DOWN FOR VIDEO In 1969, American Psychologist Mary Ainsworth developed a new procedure for studying attachment types in infants. She called her procedure the Strange Situation Classification – known more commonly as just the Strange Situation. Ainsworth was a student of the leading Developmental Psychologist John Bowlby.  As an adult you know when you’ve […]

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Developmental Psychology Textbook Video

Schaffer & Emerson’s Four Stages of Attachment

Schaffer & Emerson (1964) conducted an observational study of 60 children in Glasgow, Scotland, to understand how babies form and develop attachments. They note that human infants take a significantly longer time to form a bond than newborn animals, such as ducks. Human infants’ attachments develop in four stages: 1) The Asocial Stage – usually […]

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Developmental Psychology Textbook

Developmental Psychology

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Behavioural Psychology Developmental Psychology Textbook Video

Classical Conditioning

An Introduction to Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning (also known as Pavlovian Conditioning) was discovered by accident. Ivan Pavlov – a Russian Physiologist, and the first Russian to win the Nobel Peace Prize for Physiology or Medicine – was studying the gastric system of dogs when he observed that the dogs began salivating in anticipation of […]

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Behavioural Psychology Developmental Psychology Textbook

Operant Conditioning

An Introduction to Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning) Operant conditioning, also known as Instrumental Conditioning, informs us of the interaction between environmental stimuli and our behaviours. The term ‘operant’ stems from the idea that the individual learns through responding, or operating on the environment. The basic premise of instrumental conditioning is when a particular action results […]

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Steinberg et al. (1982) ‘High School Students in the Labor Force’

SCROLL DOWN FOR VIDEO Whilst Western societies argue vehemently against child labour, there seems to be a very different attitude to adolescents partaking in the work force. One in five American high school students work more than 15 hours a week alongside their schooling and, whilst this can lead to positive outcome regarding self-management, there […]

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Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Textbook

Communal Parenting (Bettelheim, 1964)

Is a two-parent family unit actually necessary for children to develop into successful adults? Western culture has traditionally encouraged the ‘nuclear family’ – a household unit that comprises of a mother, a father and their children. However, increasingly children are being brought up in a single-parent household, but non-nuclear parenting is nothing new. In 1964, […]