The Strange Situation- Mary Ainsworth

The Strange Situation | Mary Ainsworth (1969)

In 1969, American Psychologist Mary Ainsworth developed a new procedure for studying attachment types in infants. She called her procedure the Strange Situation Classification – known more commonly as just the Strange Situation. Ainsworth was a student of the leading Developmental Psychologist John Bowlby.    As an adult you know when you’ve formed an attachment […]

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schaffer emerson

How Babies Form Attachments in Four Stages | Schaffer & Emerson

Schaffer & Emerson (1964) conducted an observational study of 60 children in Glasgow, Scotland, to understand how babies form and develop attachments. They note that human infants take a significantly longer time to form a bond than newborn animals, such as ducks. Human infants’ attachments develop in four stages: 1) The Asocial Stage – usually […]

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1 in 5 children “met criteria for low language at 7 years”

1 in 5 children “met criteria for low language at 7 years”

Although primarily looking at the potential predictors of language outcome, the study results published by Cristina McKean and colleagues revealed the rather important title heading this blog entry: “Almost 19% of children (22/1204;18.9%) met criteria for low language at 7 years.” The source of the finding was a cohort of some 1900 infants “recruited at […]

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classical conditioning

Classical Conditioning

An Introduction to Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning)Like so many scientific developments, Classical Conditioning was discovered accidentally. Slightly more unusually, it was discovered twice – by a Russian Physiologist named Ivan Pavlov, and American Psychologist Edwin Twitmyer.On this occasion, the Russian won the race to publish his findings and the credit was therefore Pavlov’s for the taking […]

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“early medical events are associated with clinical ASD phenotypes”

“early medical events are associated with clinical ASD phenotypes”

The paper by Charlotte Willfors and colleagues provides some food for thought today and the observation that various individual and cumulative medical events – “early medical events likely to be caused by environmental factors” – may be important to at least some autism. Researchers “scrutinized the early medical histories of a rare and informative sample […]

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Relative age and ADHD medication

Relative age and ADHD medication

“Youngest children in class ‘more likely to be given ADHD drugs’” went the NHS Choices headline that led me to the short report produced by Martin Whitely and colleagues. ADHD – attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder – is something of interest to this blog; not least the idea that relative age (age relative to peers in the same […]

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How Adults Communicate Bias to Children

In a rapidly diversifying society, it’s more important than ever for kids to learn how to get along with people who are different from themselves. But what if we adults are inadvertently making kids prejudiced? That’s the question raised by a new study from the University of Washington. The results suggest that negative biases can […]

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operant conditioning

Operant Conditioning

An Introduction to Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Conditioning)Operant conditioning, also known as Instrumental Conditioning, informs us of the interaction between environmental stimuli and our behaviours. The term ‘operant’ stems from the idea that the individual learns through responding, or operating on the environment. The basic premise of instrumental conditioning is when a particular action results in a […]

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Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura

[printfriendly] Albert Bandura (December 4, 1925 – ) is a Canadian behavioural psychologist best known for his work on Social Learning Theory; in particular his influential Bobo Doll experiment (1961).

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